Vatican City was originally founded as its own sovereign state in 1929 and is the center of the Catholic world. All of the Catholic churches look to Vatican City, where the Pope resides and carries out his duties as being the head of the church.
The Gendarme Corps is the civil organization that takes care of security in Vatican City, but the city does not have a real police force besides this Corps. Saint Peter’s Basilica is well-known throughout the world and is a wonder to see today with it’s amazing architecture.
The Vatican Gardens and the Vatican Museums are also areas that visitors must see when visiting Vatican City.
Popes have been retreating to the Vatican Gardens for a moment of peace since 1279. Nicholas III founded the gardens when he moved back to the Vatican. He installed walls for protection and started the Vatican Gardens with an orchard, a lawn area, and a garden. The garden was added to over the years and today it covers close to half of the total area of Vatican City, which is 44 hectares.
Saint Peter’s Basilica
Saint Peter’s Basilica was consecrated in the year 329 and has seen thousands of years of history. Charlemagne was crowned the Holy Roman Empire Emperor in 800 at the Basilica. Over 20,000 people can fit inside of Saint Peter’s today. Saint Peter is buried underneath the Basilica in the Vatican necropolis. Saint Peter’s Square is also a sight to behold with an obelisk in the middle from the 1st century B.C. and surrounded by great architecture.
The Vatican Museums hold important historical sculptures, paintings, and other great works of art. Some of the most recognizable works of art include the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo, the Borgia Apartment, and the Raphael Rooms. The Museums are split up into different areas including the Egyptian Museum, a Chariot Room, the History Museum, and a Collection of Modern Religious Art.